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BMW

Bayerische Motor Werke AG, translated into English as "Bavarian motor works" commonly known as BMW) is a German multinational company that produces cars and motorcycles. The company was founded in 1916 as a manufacturer of aircraft engines, which he produced from 1917 to 1918 and again between 1933 and 1945.
The vehicles are sold under the brands BMW, Mini and Rolls-Royce, and motorcycles sold under the brand name BMW Motorrad. In 2015, BMW was the worlds twelfth-largest car manufacturer, with 2.279.503 produced cars.
BMW is headquartered in Munich and has been producing cars in Germany, Brazil, China, India, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States and Mexico. BMW has a significant history in motorsports, especially in rally, Formula 1, sports cars and the Isle of man TT.

1. History. (История)
Bayerische Flugzeugwerke AG was founded in 1916. This company was renamed Bayerische Motor Werke BMW in 1922. However, the name of BMW dates back to 1913, when the original company to use the name BMW as the RAPP Motorenwerke. BMWs first product was the inline six-cylinder engine called the BMW IIIA. After the First World War, the BMW company remains in the business of manufacturing engines, motorcycles, farm equipment, household items and train brakes. The company produced its first motorcycle, the BMW R 32 in 1923.
BMW became in 1928 a car manufacturer when it purchased Fahrzeugfabrik Eisenach, which, at the time, built Austin sevens under licence under the Dixi brand. The first car sold as a BMW was a rebadged Dixie called the BMW 3 / 15 after acquiring the BMW car manufacturer Automobilwerk Eisenach V. during the 1930s years, BMW has expanded its range of sports cars and large luxury cars.
Aircraft engines, motorcycles and cars will be BMWs main products until world war II. During the war, against the wishes of his Popp Director Franz-Josef, BMW concentrated on aircraft engine production, using forced labour, consisting primarily of prisoners from concentration camps, with motorcycles as a side line and automobile manufacture stopped altogether. BMWs factories were heavily bombed during the war and remaining West German facilities were banned from the production of motor vehicles or aircraft after the war. Again, the company survived by making pots, pans, and bicycles. In 1948, BMW started manufacturing motorcycles. BMW resumed car production in Bavaria in 1952 with the BMW 501 luxury saloon. The range of cars was expanded in 1955 due to the production of cheaper Isetta a scooter in compliance with the license. Slow sales of luxury cars and small profit from micro cars meant BMW was in serious financial problems and in 1959 the company was almost captured by the opponent "Daimler-Benz". A great investment in the BMW Herbert Quandt and Harald Quandt as a result of the company to survive as a separate entity. The BMW 700 was successful and helped restore the company.
In 1962 the introduction of BMWs new compact sedan class was the beginning of BMWs reputation as a leading manufacturer of sports-oriented cars. For 1960 years, BMW has expanded its range by adding a coupe and luxurious sedan. BMW 5 series midsize sedan series was introduced in 1972, after BMW 3 series compact sedans in 1975, 6 Deluxe BMW series coupe in 1976, and BMW 7 series large luxury sedans in 1978.
Division BMW M launched its first road car, the supercar with mid-engine, in 1978. This was followed by the BMW M5 in 1984, and BMW M3 in 1986. Also in 1986, BMW introduced its first V12 engine in the 750i luxury sedan.
The company acquired the Rover group in 1994, however, the takeover was not successful and causes BMW large financial losses. In 2000, BMW sold most of Rover brands, keeping only the mini brand.
In 1998, BMW also acquired the rights to the brand rolls-Royce from Vickers PLC.
In 1995, BMW Z3 and expanded the range to include the mass production two-seat Roadster 1999 BMW X5 was the companys entry into the SUV market.
The first production turbocharged diesel engine was introduced in 2006, with most engines switching to turbo in the next decade. The first hybrid BMW was in 2010, BMW active hybrid 7 and BMWs first electric car was BMWs i3 city car, which was released in 2013. After many years building a reputation for rear-wheel drive sports cars BMWs first front-wheel drive car was in a 2014 BMW 2 series active Tourer multi-purpose vehicle minivan.

2.1. Branding. Company name. (Название компании)
The name BMW stands for Bayerische Motor Werke German pronunciation: listen) was used in a number of publications and advertising in the past. Bayerische Motorenwerke translates as Bavarian motor works. The suffix-AG, short for joint stock companies, confirms the existence of the registered company that belongs to shareholders.
Terms Beemer, Bimmer and bee-they are sometimes used as slang for BMW in English, and are sometimes used as synonyms for cars and motorcycles.

2.2. Branding. Logo. (Логотип)
The circular blue and white BMW logo or medallion has evolved from the circular RAPP Motorenwerke company logo from which the BMW company grew, combined with the blue and white colors of the flag of Bavaria. The BMW logo is still used today, was created in 1917, although with various minor style changes.
The origin of the logo is often considered the image of the movement of an aircraft propeller with the white blades passing through the blue sky. However, this image was first used in a BMW advertisement in 1929, twelve years after the logo was created is not the origin of the logo itself.

2.3. Branding. Slogan. (Лозунг)
The slogan of the ultimate driving machine were first used in North America in 1974. In 2010, this long-lived campaign was mostly supplanted by the campaign is intended to make the brand more accessible and to better appeal to women, joy. By 2012, BMW returned to the ultimate driving machine.

3. Finance. (Финансы)
For the 2017 financial year, the BMW group reported a profit of 8.620 billion euros, with an annual income of 98.678 billion, an increase of 4.8% compared to the previous fiscal cycle. BMW shares traded at €77 per share, and its market capitalization was estimated at 55.3 billion in November 2018.

4. Motorcycles. (Мотоциклами)
BMW began production of motorcycle engines and then motorcycles after World War I. its motorcycle brand is now known as BMW Motorrad. Their first successful motorcycle, after the failed Helios and Flink, was the "R32" in 1923, although initially production began in 1921. It was a "boxer" twin engine, in which a cylinder projects into the air stream at each side of the machine. In addition to its single-cylinder models are basically the same pattern, all their motorcycles used this distinctive layout until the early 1980-ies. Many BMWs are still produced in this layout that places the series R.
The whole production BMW motorcycle, since 1969, is located in the Berlin-Spandau plant.
During the Second world war, BMW produced the BMW R75 motorcycle with a Motor-driven carriage, in combination with a lockable differential, this made the vehicle very capable off-road.
In 1982, came the K series, shaft drive but water cooled and with three or four cylinders mounted in a straight line from front to rear. Shortly after, BMW also started making the chain-driven F and G series with single and parallel Twin Rotax engines.
In the early 1990-ies, BMW has updated the boxer engine dummy, which became known as the oilhead. In 2002, the oilhead engine had two spark plugs per cylinder. In 2004 it added a built-in balance shaft, an increased cylinder capacity of 1.170 CC and enhanced performance to 100 HP 75 kW for the R1200GS, compared to 85 HP 63 kW to the previous R1150GS. Available in the R1100S and R1200S are more powerful variants of the oilhead engines, producing 98 and 122 HP 73 and 91 kW, respectively.
In 2004 BMW introduced the new K1200S sports bike which marked a departure for BMW. He had the engine power of 167 HP 125 kW received from the company working with the team Williams F1, and lighter than previous models K. Innovation includes electrically adjustable front and rear suspension, and a Hossack-type front fork that BMW calls Duolever.
BMW introduced anti-lock brakes on production motorcycles starting in the late 1980-ies. Generation of anti lock brakes on the 2006 and later BMW motorcycles paved the way for the introduction of electronic stability control or anti-skid technology later in the 2007 model year.
BMW has been an innovator in motorcycle suspension design, taking up telescopic front suspension long before most other manufacturers. Then they switched to Earles fork, front suspension fork 1955 to 1969. Most modern BMW do a rear swingarm, single sided at the back. Some BMWs started using yet another front trademark of suspension design, the Telelever, in the early 1990-ies. Like the Earles fork, in the Telelever significantly reduces dive under braking.
BMW group, on 31 January 2013 announced that Pierer Industrie AG has bought Husqvarna for an undisclosed sum, which will not be disclosed to a party in the future. The company is headed by Stephen Pierer CEO of KTM. Pierer Industri AG is 51% owner of KTM and 100% owner of Husqvarna.
In September 2018, BMW has introduced a new self-driving motorcycle from BMW Motorrad with the aim of using technology to help improve road safety. The Bicycle design was inspired by the model of the company BMW R1200 GS.

5.1. Cars Modern models. (Современные модели)
The current model range of BMW cars are:
5 series four-door sedan model code г30 and five-door wagon G31. With a long wheelbase sedan variant G38 is also sold in China.
7 series models are four-door sedans G11 code and long-wheelbase four-door sedan model code G12.
2 series two-door coupe model code F22 and F23 cabriolet, "active Tourer" quintuple F45 minivans and "Grand Tourer" F46 seven-passenger minivans and four-door "Gran Coupe" model fastback the F44 code.
The 3 series four-door sedan model code G20 and five-door wagon of the group of 21.
4 series F32 two-door coupe from the code models a two-door convertible model code F33 and five-door "Gran Coupe" fastbacks model F36 code.
A series of 8 two-door coupé model code G14, G15 two-door "Phaeton" and "Grand Coupe" four-door fastbacks G16.
6 series "Gran Turismo" four-door coupe model code G32.
The 1 series five-door hatchback model code F40. Four-door sedan version of the model code F52 sold in China and Mexico.
The current model of the line X Series SUVs and crossovers:
X7 G07. (Х7 Г07)
Model code X1 F48.
G02 X4. (G02 Х4)
X2 F39. (Х2 Ф39)
X5 G05. (Х5 G05)
X3 G01 Pad. (Х3 G01 Колодки Коврик)
X6 HOMS G06. (Х6 Гомс G06)
The current lineup of Z-series two-door Roadster is the model Z4 steering G29 code.

5.2. Cars I model. (Я модель)
Electric cars and hybrid cars sold under the BMW I sub-brand. The current lineup consists of:
I8 two-door sports coupe / Roadster with an electric motor and a petrol engine.
I3 five-door B-segment supermini hatchback, driven by a motor with an additional petrol engine.
In addition, several hybrid models built on existing platforms has been on the market as a model iPerformance. Examples include 225xe with 1.5 l three-cylinder turbocharged petrol engine with an electric motor, 330e / 530e with 2.0 L four-cylinder engine with an electric motor, and 740e equipped using a 2.0-litre turbocharged petrol engine with an electric motor.

5.3. Cars Model M. (Модель M)
A subsidiary of BMW M Gmbh, which is BMW Motorsport GmbH until 1993, high-performance versions of various BMW models, starting in 1978.
Recently, the model range consists of:
The M4 two-door coupe / convertible.
M5 four-door sedan. (М5 четырех-дверный седан)
X5 M five door SUV is expected in 2020.
M2 two-door coupe. (М2 двух-дверное купе)
X6 M five-door coupe-style SUV is expected in 2020.
X3 m five-door compact SUV.
M3 four-door sedan due to return in 2020.
M8 two-door coupe / convertible.
X4 m five-door coupe-style compact crossover SUV.
The letter "M" is also often used in marketing for BMWs regular models such as M140i F20, G11 M760Li model and the different options available under the name "M Sport", "M Performance" or similar.

6. Motorsport. (Мотоспорт)
BMW has a long history of activities in Motorsport, including:
American Series Le Mans.
Racing cars such as DTM, WTCC, EURO and BTCC.
Formula Two. (Формула Два)
Rally "Dakar". (Ралли "Дакар")
Endurance races such as the 24 hours nürburgring, 24 hours of Le Mans, 24 hours of Daytona and the 24 hours of Spa.
Formula BMW – a Junior racing Formula category.
Formula E. (Формула E)
Formula One. (Формула Один)
The Isle of man TT.

7.1. Involvement in the arts. Art Cars
In 1975, sculptor Alexander Calder was commissioned to paint a BMW race car 3.0 CSL, all driven by hervé Poulain at the 24 hours of Le Mans, which was the first in a series of BMW art car. With Calders work of art, many other famous artists around the world have created BMW art cars, including David Hockney, Jenny Holzer, Roy Lichtenstein, Robert Rauschenberg, Frank Stella, Andy Warhol. To date, a total of 19 cars BMW art car based on the racing and regular production vehicles, have been created.

7.2. Involvement in the arts. Architecture. (Архитектура)
Global BMW headquarters in Munich is a cylinder, 4-cylinder engine. It was designed by Karl Schwanzer and was completed in 1972. The building has become a European icon and was declared a protected historic building in 1999. The main tower consists of four vertical cylinders standing next to and opposite each other. Each cylinder is divided horizontally in the center of the mold on the facade. In particular, these cylinders do not stand still, they are suspended on a Central support tower.
The BMW Museum is a futuristic cauldron-shaped house, which was designed by Karl Schwanzer and opened in 1972. The interior has a spiral theme and the roof of the 40-metre high BMW logo diameter.
BMW Welt, the companys showroom in Munich developed a coop of Himmelblau and opened in 2007. It includes a showroom and a lifting platform where the customers new car of the theatre presented to the customer.

7.3. Involvement in the arts. The film. (Фильм)
In 2001 and 2002, BMW produced a series of 8 short films called the hire, which had areas around BMW models being driven to extremes Clive Owen. Of Directors included guy Ritchie, John Woo, John Frankenheimer and ang Lee. In 2016, was released the ninth film in the series.
In 2006, the "Performance series BMW" marketing activities aimed at attracting buyers of the black car. It consisted of seven concerts by jazz musician Mike Phillips, and screenings of Black Directors.

7.4. Involvement in the arts. Fine art
BMW was the principal sponsor of the 1998 the art exhibition of motorcycles in various Guggenheim museums, though the financial relationship between BMW and the Guggenheim was criticised in many quarters.
In 2012 BMW began to sponsor independent production collectors guide BMW art, which is the first global guide to private and public contemporary art collections around the world. Fourth edition, released in 2016, with 256 collections from 43 countries.

8. Manufacture and sale of. (Производство и продажа)
Full BMW produces cars in the following countries:
Germany: in Munich, Dingolfing, Regensburg and Leipzig.
Austria: Graz. (Австрия: Грац)
China: Shenyang. (Китай: Шэньян)
USA: Spartanburg. (США: Спартанбург)
Mexico: San Luis Potosi.
Brazil: For. (Бразилия: Для)
India: Chennai. (Индия: Ченнай)
South Africa: Rosslyn. (Южная Африка: Рослин)
BMW also has local Assembly operation using complete knock down CKD components in Thailand, Russia, Egypt, Indonesia, Malaysia and India.
BMW, including Mini and Rolls-Royce 1.366.838 of the cars produced in 2006, and then 1.481.253 passenger cars in 2010. BMW motorcycles are manufactured in the companys Berlin factory, which previously produced aircraft engines for Siemens.
By 2011, about 56% of BMW-Brand cars operate on gasoline engines and the remaining 44 per cent are powered by diesel engines. Of those petrol vehicles, about 27% are four-cylinder and about nine percent are eight-cylinder models. On average 9.000 vehicles per day to leave the factories of BMW, and 63% are transported by rail.
Annual production volume since 2005, according to BMWs annual reports:
Annual sales volume since 2005, according to BMWs annual reports:
* In the 2008-2012 period, the indicators of the motorcycle industries include models of Husqvarna. ** Except Husqvarna, sales volume up to 2013: 59.776 units.

9. Reminds. (Напоминает)
In November 2016, BMW recalled 136.000 2007-2012 model year in the United States, cars for fuel pump wiring problem can cause the leakage of fuel and the engine shutdown or reboot problems.
In 2018 BMW recalled 106.000 diesel vehicles in South Korea with a defective exhaust gas recirculation module, which is called 39 the engine will not start. Recall was then expanded to more 324.000 cars in Europe. Following the recall in South Korea, the government banned cars that have not yet been validated from driving on public roads. It affects up to 25% of the recalled vehicles where the owners were notified, but the machines have not yet been validated. BMW, as reported, were known starting in 2016, more than 4% of the affected cars in South Korea have experienced failures with the EGR coolers, which leads to about 20 owners sued the company.

10. Cooperation of industry. (Сотрудничество промышленности)
The BMW group cooperates with other manufacturers in the following cases car:
Daimler Benz: joint venture for production of hybrid drivetrain components used in the ActiveHybrid 7. Development of automated driving technology.
McLaren automotive: BMW, developed and produced by the V12 engine that runs in the McLaren F1.
Toyota: three of the 2013 agreement on joint development of fuel cells and technologies, the development of a joint platform for a sports car for BMW Z4 steering G29 2018 and Toyota Supra) and a study of the lithium-air battery.
Peugeot and Citroen: the joint production of four-cylinder petrol engines, starting in 2004.
Audi and Mercedes: the joint purchase of Nokias here before DM card in 2015.
In 2018, Horizn Studio collaborated with BMW to launch a special camera editions.

11. Sponsorship. (Спонсорство)
BMW has done a six-year sponsorship contract with the Olympic Committee of the United States in July 2010.
Golf, BMW sponsors a variety of events, including the PGA championship since 2007, the Italian Open in form 2009-2012, BMW masters in China from 2012 to 2015 and BMW International open in Munich in 1989.
In Rugby, the BMW is a sponsor of the national team of South Africas Rugby from 2011 to 2015.

12. Environmental indicators. (Экологические показатели)
BMW is a Charter member of the environmental protection Agency the U.S. EPA National environmental achievement track, which recognizes the responsibility for their environmental impact and performance. He is also a member of the program of environmental protection South Carolina.
Since 1999, BMW has been named worlds most sustainable automotive company every year according to the sustainability index the Dow Jones. The BMW Group is one of the three car companies will be presented each year in the index. In 2001, the BMW group has undertaken programmes of the United Nations environment programme, the UN Global compact and the cleaner production Declaration. She was also the first company in the automotive industry to appoint a specialist in environmental protection, in 1973. BMW is a member of the world business Council for sustainable development.
In 2012, BMW was the highest car company in the disclosure projects global 500 carbon, with a score of 99 out of 100. The BMW group has been ranked among the most sustainable DAX 30 company Sustainalytics in 2012.
To reduce vehicle emissions, BMW is improving the efficiency of existing fossil fuel models in the study of electric energy, hybrid engines and hydrogen for future models.
In the first quarter of 2018 BMW sold 26.858 electrified vehicles.

13. The service of car sharing. (Услуга обмена автомобиля)
DriveNow was a joint venture between BMW and Sixt, which operated in Europe from 2011 to 2019. By December 2012, DriveNow operates over 1.000 vehicles in five cities with about 60.000 customers.
In 2012, the BMW subsidiary alphabet beginning with a corporate car sharing services in Europe, called AlphaCity.
Auto-exchange ReachNow the service was launched in Seattle in April 2016. Currently ReachNow works in Seattle, Portland and Brooklyn.

14. Foreign branches. (Зарубежные филиалы)
Russia. (Россия)
The Russian market, the 3 series and 5 series cars are assembled from complete knock-down components in Kaliningrad in 1999.
Malaysia. (Малайзия)
BMW complete knockdown CKD Assembly plant in Kedah. Assembly Malaysia-market 1 series, 3 series, 5 series, 7 series, X1, X3, X4, X5, X6 and mini countryman since 2008.
Canada. (Канада)
BMWs first office in Canada, located in Ottawa, opened in 1969. In 1986, BMW has established a head office in Canada.
BMW sold 28.149 vehicles in Canada in 2008.
Japan. (Япония)
BMW Japan Corporation, a subsidiary of the company engaged in the import and distribution of BMW cars in Japan.

14.1. Foreign branches. China. (Китай)
The first BMW plant in China was opened in 2004 as a result of a joint venture of BMW and Brilliance auto. The plant was opened in the industrial area of Shenyang and produces 3 series and 5 series models for the Chinese market. In 2012 the company opened a second plant in Shenyang.
In the period from January to November 2014, BMW sold 415.200 cars in China through a network of for BMWs 440 stores and more than 100 mini-stores.

14.2. Foreign branches. Hungary. (Венгрия)
On July 31, 2018 BMW has announced to build a 1 billion Euro car plant in Hungary. The plant will be built near Debrecen, will have a production capacity of 150.000 vehicles per year.

14.3. Foreign branches. Mexico. (Мексика)
In July 2014, BMW announced the establishment of a plant in Mexico, in the city and the state of San Luis Potosi with investments at $ 1 billion. The plant will employ up to 1.500 people and annually produce 150.000 cars.

14.4. Foreign branches. South Africa. (Южная Африка)
BMW was assembled in South Africa since 1968, when praetor Monteerders plant was opened in Rosslyn, near Pretoria. BMW initially bought shares in the company, before fully acquiring it in 1975 and the company became BMW South Africa, the first subsidiary of BMW to be established outside Germany. Unlike the US manufacturers such as Ford and GM, which sold out of the country in the 1980-ies, BMW retained full responsibility for its activities in South Africa.
After the end of apartheid in 1994, and the reduction of import tariffs, BMW South Africa ended local production of the series 5 and series 7, in order to concentrate on the production of a series of 3 for the export market. South Africa the reason why BMW is now exported to right hand drive markets including Japan, Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong, as well as of Africa South of the Sahara. Since 1997, BMW South Africa has produced a car with left-hand drive for export to Taiwan, USA and Iran, and also South America.
Three unique models that BMW Motorsport created for the South African market were the E23 M745i 1983 used М88 engine from the BMW M1, the BMW 333i in 1986, which added a six-cylinder 3.2-litre M30 engine to the E30, and the E30 BMW 325is 1989, which was powered by an Alpina-derived 2.7-litre engine.
BMWs with a VIN starting with "NC0" are manufactured in South Africa.

14.5. Foreign branches. USA. (США)
The BMW car officially sold in the USA from 1956 made in the USA since 1994. The first BMW dealership in the U.S. opened in 1975. In 2016, BMW was the twelfth highest selling brand in the United States.
The plant in Greer, South Carolina has the highest production of BMW plants around the world, currently produces about 1.500 vehicles a day. The models produced at the factory in Spartanburg are X3, X4, X5, X6, and X7 SUV model.
In addition to the plant in South Carolina, BMWs North American companies include sale, marketing, design, financial services and operations in the United States, Mexico, Canada and Latin America.

14.6. Foreign branches. Brazil. (Бразилия)
9 October 2014, BMW new complete knockdown plant CKD Assembly to its assembled its first car - the F30 3 series.
The car is built for it are 1 series F20, 3 series F30, F48 X1, X3 F25, the sensor drive and mini countryman.

14.7. Foreign branches. Egypt. (Египет)
The Bavarian automaker became the importer of BMW and Mini brands in 2003.
Starting from 2005, 3 series, 5 series, 7 series, X1, X3 models sold in Egypt are assembled from complete knock-down components at the BMW plant in 6th of October.

14.8. Foreign branches. India. (Индия)
BMW India was established in 2006 as a subsidiary trade company with its head office located in Gurugram.
BMW complete knockdown Assembly plant was built in Chennai in 2007, installation of the Indian market 3 series, 5 series, 7 series, X1, X3, X5, mini Countryman and models of motorcycles. 20 million Euro plant aims to produce 1.700 cars per year.

14.9. Foreign branches. Russia. (Россия)
The Russian market, the 3 series and 5 series cars are assembled from complete knock-down components in Kaliningrad in 1999.

14.10. Foreign branches. Malaysia. (Малайзия)
BMW complete knockdown CKD Assembly plant in Kedah. Assembly Malaysia-market 1 series, 3 series, 5 series, 7 series, X1, X3, X4, X5, X6 and mini countryman since 2008.

14.11. Foreign branches. Canada. (Канада)
BMWs first office in Canada, located in Ottawa, opened in 1969. In 1986, BMW has established a head office in Canada.
BMW sold 28.149 vehicles in Canada in 2008.

14.12. Foreign branches. Japan. (Япония)
BMW Japan Corporation, a subsidiary of the company engaged in the import and distribution of BMW cars in Japan.

14.13. Foreign branches. South Korea. (Южная Корея)
BMW Korea import of BMW cars in South Korea with more than fifty service centers in fully performing for the Korean customers. Furthermore, BMW Korea has its own driving center in Incheon.

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The BMW Headquarters German: BMW - Vierzylinder English: BMW four - cylinder also known as the BMW HQ or BMW Tower German: BMW Hochhaus is a Munich
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BMW Brilliance officially BMW Brilliance Automotive Ltd. is an automobile manufacturing company headquartered in Shenyang, China and a joint venture
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BMW in 1922. However the name BMW dates back to 1913, when the original company to use the name BMW was born initially as Rapp Motorenwerke BMW s
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BMW M GmbH, formerly known as BMW Motorsport GmbH, is a high - performance division of BMW AG that manufactures high - performance cars. BMW M M for motorsport
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